Diferencies ente revisiones de «Historia de la India»

m
iguo testu: el investigadores => los investigadores
m (preferencies llingüístiques: locales => llocales)
m (iguo testu: el investigadores => los investigadores)
La creciente urbanización de la India nos sieglos VII e.C. y VI e.C. produció l'orixe de nuevos movimientos ascéticos o shramánicos que desafiaron la ortodoxa de los rituales.<ref name="Flood 1996 82"/> Mahavira (ca. 549 e.C. – 477 e.C.), partidariu del jainismu y Buda Gautama (ca. 563 e.C. – 483 e.C.), fundador del budismu, fueron los iconos más destacaos d'esti movimientu. El Shramana dio orixe al conceutu del ciclu de nacencia y muerte, el conceutu de samsara, y el conceutu de lliberación.<ref>Flood, Gavin. Olivelle, Patrick. 2003. ''The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism.'' Malden: Blackwell. pp. 273–4. "The second half of the first millennium BC was the period that created many of the ideological and institutional elements that characterize later Indian religions. The renouncer tradition played a central role during this formative period of Indian religious history.&nbsp;... Some of the fundamental values and beliefs that we generally associate with Indian religions in xeneral and Hinduism in particular were in part the creation of the renouncer tradition. These include the two pillars of Indian theologies: samsara&nbsp;– the belief that life in this world is one of suffering and subject to repeated deaths and births (rebirth); moksa/nirvana&nbsp;– the goal of human existence....."</ref> Buda atopó un camín mediu qu'ameyoró l'ascetismu estremo atopáu nes relixones shramánicas.<ref>Laumakis, Stephen. ''An Introduction to Buddhist philosophy''. 2008. p. 4</ref>
 
Pola mesma dómina, Mahavira (24.° Tirthankara del jainismu) arrobinó una teoloxía que más tarde se convertiría nel jainismu.<ref>Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I.B.Tauris : London 1-86064-148-2 – '' Jainism's major teacher is the Mahavira, a contemporary of the Buddha, and who died approximately 526 BC. Page 114 ''</ref> Sicasí, la ortodoxa jainista cree que les enseñances de los Tirthankaras son anteriores a tolos tiempos conocíos. Acordies con ellos investigadores, los últimos dos Tirthankaras, Pashvanatha y Mahavira, fueron figures históriques. Rashabhanatha foi'l primera Tinthankara.{{sfn|Doniger|1999|p=549}} Créese que les Vedes documentaron a dellos Tirthankaras y un orde ascéticu similar al movimientu shramánico.<ref>Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I.B.Tauris : London 1-86064-148-2 '' "The extreme antiquity of Jainism as a non-vedic, indigenous Indian religion is well documented. Ancient Hindu and Buddhist scriptures refer to Jainism as an existing tradition which began long before Mahavira." Page 115 ''</ref>
 
=== Les dinastíes de Magadha ===