Diferencies ente revisiones de «Yuri Gagarin»

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La so muyer Valentina sobreviviéralu, según tamién les sos fíes Yelena y Galina. Yelena Yurievna Gagarina, la so mayoraza, ye una hestoriadora de l'arte que tien trabayao como Direutora Xeneral de los museos del Kremlin dende 2001. La so fía menor, Galina Yurievna Gagarina, ye profesora d'económiques na [[Universidá d'Económiques Rusa de Plekhanov]] en Moscú.
===CauseMotivu ofde jet crashl'accidente===
El motivu de l'accidente que matara a Gagarin nun ta entá asoleyáu, y tien sío suxetu d'especulaciones y teoríes conspiranóiques nes décades siguientes.
The cause of the crash that killed Gagarin is not entirely certain, and has been subject to speculation about conspiracy theories over the ensuing decades.
Los documentos soviéticos desclasificaos en marzu de 2003, amosaren qu'el [[KGB]] fadría la so propia investigación sobre l'accidente, separtada d'una gubernamental y d'otres dos militares. L'informe del KGB refugaría delles teoríes conspiratives, en cuentes d'indicar que les acciones del personal de la bas aérea espoxigaríen l'accidente. Esi informe siñala qu'un controlador aéreu ufriéra-y información errónea de les condiciones climatolóxiques a Gagarin, según tamién los obreros de pista dexaríen tanques de benzol enganchaos a la nave. El vuelu planeáu de Gagarin precisare de bon tiempu (cielu nidiu, ensin ñubes nin chubascos) y d'ausencia de tanques esternos de benzol. La investigación finara con que l'avión de Gagarin fixere un vuelcu, el cualu pudiere debese al choque d'un páxaru o tamién debíu a un movimientu rápidu pa evitar otra nave.
Soviet documents declassified in March 2003 showed that the [[KGB]] had conducted their own investigation of the accident, in addition to one government and two military investigations. The KGB's report dismissed various conspiracy theories, instead indicating that the actions of airbase personnel contributed to the crash. The report states that an [[air traffic controller]] provided Gagarin with outdated weather information, and that by the time of his flight, conditions had deteriorated significantly. Ground crew also left external fuel tanks attached to the aircraft. Gagarin's planned flight activities needed clear weather and no outboard tanks. The investigation concluded that Gagarin's aircraft entered a [[spin (flight)|spin]], either due to a [[bird strike]] or because of a sudden move to avoid another aircraft. Because of the out-of-date weather report, the crew believed their altitude to be higher than it actually was, and could not react properly to bring the MiG-15 out of its spin.<ref name="telegraph080801"/>
Otra teoría, asoleyada pol investigador de l'accidente orixinal nel 2005, hipotetizara que la ventana de la cabina taba accidentalemente abierta polos obreros de pista o l'anterior pilotu, dexando ensin osíxenu ya incapaz a los tripulantes de controlar la nave. Una teoría semayada, espublizada na revista ''Aire y Espaciu'', yera la de que los pilotos decataren de la ventana abierta y siguieron un procedimientu basáu en descender darréu l'altor pa evitar la perda concencia, daqué que nun algamaríen y poro, morreríen nel vuelu.
Another theory, advanced by the original crash investigator in 2005, hypothesizes that a cabin air vent was accidentally left open by the crew or the previous pilot, leading to [[oxygen deprivation]] and leaving the crew incapable of controlling the aircraft.<ref name="ScotlandSunday-GagarinInquiry"/> A similar theory, published in ''Air & Space'' magazine, is that the crew detected the open vent and followed procedure by executing a rapid dive to a lower altitude. This dive caused them to lose consciousness and crash.<ref name="airspace20100901"/>
OnEl 12 Aprild'abril de 2007, theel Kremlin vetoedtorgara auna newnueva investigationinvestigación intosobre thela deathmuerte ofde Gagarin. GovernmentOficiales officialsdel saidgobiernu thatdixeren theyque sawnun nohebía reasonmor topa beginentamar auna newnueva investigationinvestigación.<ref name="belfast171"/>
N'abril de 2011, dellos documentos d'una xunta de 1968 del Comité Central de Partíu Comunista pa investigar l'accidente foi desclasificada. Esos documentos revelaren qu'el determín orixinal de la xunta fore que Gagarin o Seryogin remanaríen brillantemente pa, o bien evitar un globu meterolóxicu o bien pa safar entrar na llende soperior del primer embozu de la cobertoria de ñubes.
In April 2011, documents from a 1968 commission set up by the Central Committee of the Communist Party to investigate the accident were declassified. Those documents revealed that the commission's original conclusion was that Gagarin or Seryogin had maneuvered sharply either to avoid a weather balloon, leading the jet into a "super-critical flight regime and to its stalling in complex meteorological conditions," or to avoid "entry into the upper limit of the first layer of cloud cover".<ref name="afp20110408"/>
Nel so llibru ''Dos costaos de la Lluna'' ([[Alexey Leonov]], 2004), l'autor que fore parte d'una Xunta Estatal establecida en 1968 pa pescanciar detáis de la so muerte, cunta qu'elli taba remanando un helicópteru na mesma área esi día cuando elli sintiera "dos ''boom'' no llonxano".
In his 2004 book ''Two Sides of the Moon'', [[Alexey Leonov]], who was part of a State Commission established to investigate the death in 1968, recounts that he was flying a helicopter in the same area that day when he heard "two loud booms in the distance." Corroborating other theories, his conclusion is that a Sukhoi jet (which he identifies as a [[Sukhoi Su-15|Su-15 'Flagon']]) was flying below its minimum allowed altitude, and "without realizing it because of the terrible weather conditions, he passed within 10 or 20 meters of Yuri and Seregin's plane while breaking the sound barrier." The resulting turbulence would have sent the MiG into an uncontrolled spin. Leonov believes the first boom he heard was that of the jet breaking the sound barrier, and the second was Gagarin's plane crashing.<ref name="LeonovBook"/> In a June 2013 interview with Russian television network [[RT (TV network)|RT]], Leonov said that a declassified report on the incident revealed the presence of a second, "unauthorized" Su-15 flying in the area. Leonov states that this aircraft had descended to {{convert|450|m}} and that, while running afterburners, "the aircraft reduced its echelon at a distance of 10–15 meters in the clouds, passing close to Gagarin, turning his plane and thus sending it into a tailspin – a deep spiral, to be precise – at a speed of 750 kilometers per hour." As a condition of being allowed to discuss the report, however, Leonov was required to not disclose the name of the other pilot, who was reported to be 80 years old (as of 2013) and in poor health.<ref name="rt20130614"/><ref name="unitoday20130614"/>
==LegacyHeredá andy tributesllibrances==
Aside from his short stature at {{convert|1.57|m|ftin}}, one of Gagarin's most notable traits was his smile.<ref name="bbc20110307"/> Many commented on how Gagarin's smile gained the attention of crowds on the frequent tours he did in the months after the Vostok 1 mission success.<ref name="French1998" />
[[Sergei Korolev]], one of the masterminds behind the early years of the Soviet space program, later said that Gagarin possessed a smile "that lit up the Cold War".<ref name="guardian20110313"/>
[[File:10 Rouble 2001-2.JPG|thumb|Russian Rouble commemorating Gagarin in 2001]]
[[File:Gagarin statue london.jpg|thumb|upright|Yuri Gagarin statue in London, near Admiralty Arch]]
On 14 July 2011, a [[Statue of Yuri Gagarin, Greenwich|statue of Yuri Gagarin]] was unveiled at the [[Admiralty Arch]] end of [[The Mall, London|The Mall]] in London, opposite the permanent sculpture of [[:File:James Cook statue 569r.jpg|James Cook]]. It is a copy of the statue outside Gagarin's former school in [[Lyubertsy]].<ref name="guardian20110406"/> In 2013, the London statue was moved to a permanent location outside the [[Royal Observatory, Greenwich|Royal Observatory]] in [[Greenwich]], and was publicly unveiled on 7 March 2013.<ref name="ria20130307">{{cite news |url=http://en.ria.ru/world/20130307/179877261/Gagarin-Monument-Moved-from-Londons-Mall-to-Greenwich.html |title=Gagarin Monument Moved from London's Mall to Greenwich |work=RIA Novosti |date=7 March 2013 |accessdate=13 April 2014}}</ref>
====50thCincuenta anniversaryaniversariu====
The 50th anniversary of Gagarin's journey into space was marked in 2011 by tributes around the world. A film titled ''[[First Orbit]]'' was shot from the [[International Space Station]], combining the original flight audio with footage of the route taken by Gagarin.<ref name="guardian20110411"/> The Russian, American, and Italian [[Expedition 27]] crew aboard the ISS sent a special video message to wish the people of the world a "Happy [[Yuri's Night]]", wearing shirts with an image of Gagarin.<ref name="youtube20110411"/>
The launch of [[Soyuz TMA-21]] on 4 April 2011 was devoted to the 50th anniversary of the first manned space mission.<ref name="mannedaero"/>
===HonoursHonores andy awardsagasayos===
{{iw-ref|ru|Гагарин, Юрий Алексеевич}}
* [[Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"]] (USSR, 1958)
* [[Hero of the Soviet Union]] (14 April 1961)
*{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=2f4pSA4S8UwC&pg=PA140 |title=Soviet and Post-Soviet Identities |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge |editor1-first=Mark |editor1-last=Bassin |editor2-first=Catriona |editor2-last=Kelly |pages=140–141 |year=2012 |isbn=1107011175}}
*{{Cite book |title=Sportsmen of the Soviet Army |publisher=Novosti Press Agency |location=Moscow |first=Vyacheslav Mikhailovich |last=Gavrilin |year=1973 |oclc=23374154}}
*{{Cite book |title=Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945–1974 |publisher=NASA |location=Washington, D.C. |first=Asif A |last=Siddiqi |year=2000 |id=SP-2000-4408 |oclc=48909645}} [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4408pt1.pdf Part 1 (page 1-500)], [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4408pt2.pdf Part 2 (page 501-1011)].
==FurtherOtres readingllectures==
*{{Cite book |title=The Cosmonaut Who couldn't Stop Smiling: The Life and Legend of Yuri Gagarin |publisher=Northern Illinois University Press |first=Andrew L |last=Jenks |year=2012 |isbn=978-0-87580-447-7}}
*{{Cite book |title=Vostok 1: First Human in Space |publisher=Enslow |location=[[Springfield Township, Union County, New Jersey|Springfield, NJ]] |first=Michael D |last=Cole |year=1995 |isbn=0-89490-541-4}}
*{{Cite book |title=Starman: The Truth Behind the Legend of Yuri Gagarin |publisher=Bloomsbury |location=[[London]] |first1=Jamie |last1=Doran |first2=Piers |last2=Bizony |year=1998 |isbn=0-7475-4267-8}}
==ExternalEnllaces linksesternos==
{{Commons category|Yuri Gagarin}}