Wikipedia:Testu de la Llicencia de documentación llibre de GNU

GNU Free Documentation License

                 GNU Free Documentation License
                  Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 
Free Software Foundation, Inc. <>

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this 
license document, but changing it is not allowed.


The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other 
functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure 
everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or 
without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, 
this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit 
for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications 
made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works 
of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements 
the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for 
free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free 
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program 
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. 
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for 
any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published 
as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose 
purpose is instruction or reference.


This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that 
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be 
distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants 
a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that 
work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers 
to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and 
is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or 
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A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document 
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or 
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A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section 
of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the 
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The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the 
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The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles 
are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that 
says that the Document is released under this License. If a section 
does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed 
to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant 
Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then 
there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, 
as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that 
the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be 
at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, 
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and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic 
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A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, 
or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent 
modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not 
Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is 
not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII 
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML 
using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, 
PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent 
image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary 
formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, 
SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally 
available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by 
some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus 
such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this 
License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which 
do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the 
most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning 
of the body of the text.

The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of 
the Document to the public.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose 
title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following 
text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a 
specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", 
"Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" 
of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains 
a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which 
states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty 
Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, 
but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that 
these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the 
meaning of this License.


You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either 
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the 
copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies 
to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other 
conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical 
measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the 
copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation 
in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies 
you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and 
you may publicly display copies.


If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the 
Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the 
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: 
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back 
cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the 
publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title 
with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add 
other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited 
to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and 
satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other 

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, 
you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the 
actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering 
more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent 
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy 
a computer-network location from which the general network-using public 
has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete 
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the 
latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin 
distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent 
copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least 
one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or 
through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the 
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give 
them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the 
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the 
Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version 
filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and 
modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. 
In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    * A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title 
distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions 
(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the 
Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original 
publisher of that version gives permission.
    * B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or 
entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified 
Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the 
Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless 
they release you from this requirement.
    * C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified 
Version, as the publisher.
    * D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    * E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications 
adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    * F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license 
notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the 
terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    * G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant 
Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
    * H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    * I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, 
and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and 
publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is 
no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the 
title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title 
Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the 
previous sentence.
    * J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for 
public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the 
network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was 
based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a 
network location for a work that was published at least four years before 
the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers 
to gives permission.
    * K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", 
Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the 
substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or 
dedications given therein.
    * L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered 
in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are 
not considered part of the section titles.
    * M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not
be included in the Modified Version.
    * N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" 
or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    * O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices 
that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from 
the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these 
sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of 
Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles 
must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains 
nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for 
example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by 
an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and 
a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list 
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover 
Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements 
made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text 
for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the 
same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you 
may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher 
that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give 
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply 
endorsement of any Modified Version.


You may combine the Document with other documents released under this 
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, 
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections 
of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as 
Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that 
you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple 
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there 
are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, 
make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, 
in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that 
section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to 
the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice 
of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" 
in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History";
likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any 
sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled 


You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents 
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this 
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included 
in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License 
for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute 
it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this 
License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other 
respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and 
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or 
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting 
from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the 
compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the 
Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the 
other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works 
of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies 
of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire 
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that 
bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent 
of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must 
appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute 
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing 
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from 
their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all 
Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these 
Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and 
all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, 
provided that you also include the original English version of this 
License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In 
case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version 
of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", 
or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) 
will typically require changing the actual title.


You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except 
as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, 
modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically 
terminate your rights under this License.

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license 
from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, 
unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates 
your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to 
notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days 
after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated 
permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some 
reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of 
violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and 
you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the 
licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under 
this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently 
reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does 
not give you any rights to use it.


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the 
GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will 
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail 
to address new problems or concerns. See

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. 
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this 
License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of 
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version 
or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the 
Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version 
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not 
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies 
that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be 
used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently 
authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World 
Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides 
prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that 
anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor 
Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of 
copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license 
published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation 
with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well 
as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same 

"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in 
part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, 
and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere 
other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part 
into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were 
thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site 
under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, 
provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of 
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license 
notices just after the title page:

    Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this 
    document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, 
    Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software 
    Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, 
    and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in 
    the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, 
replace the "with … Texts." line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with 
    the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover 
    Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other 
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend 
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software 
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use 
in free software.